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Kokain oder Cocain (auch Benzoylecgoninmethylester) ist ein starkes Stimulans und Betäubungsmittel. Es findet weltweit Anwendung als Rauschdroge mit. Koks bezeichnet: Koks, aus Kohle hergestellter Brennstoff; umgangssprachlich Kokain, stimulierende Rauschdroge und Arzneimittel; umgangssprachlich Geld. Kokain (auch Cocain, Benzoylecgoninmethylester) ist ein Stimulans, welches aus dem Coca-Strauch. [1] Wikipedia-Artikel „Kokain“: [1] Digitales Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache „​Kokain“: [1] Uni Leipzig: Wortschatz-Portal „Kokain“: [1] The. Centralblattfürdie gesammte Therapie 2: , Seite f.,gutterfunk.codia.​org/wiki/Kokain.[31] gutterfunk.co://gutterfunk.co

Wiki Kokain

gutterfunk.co Erowid - Cocaine Die englischsprachige Website ist eine Online-Datenbank mit Informationen zu psychoaktiven Substanzen. Word im Clip Art. Es wurden Teilstücke von Wikipedia übernommen. gutterfunk.co, gutterfunk.co, Stand: 1. Januar​. Koks bezeichnet: Koks, aus Kohle hergestellter Brennstoff; umgangssprachlich Kokain, stimulierende Rauschdroge und Arzneimittel; umgangssprachlich Geld. Wiki Kokain

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Dies gilt insbesondere für Dauerkonsumenten, da diese häufiger Verletzungen an den Nasenschleimhäuten haben als Gelegenheitskonsumenten. Cocain kann als Rauschmittel geschnupft, gespritzt oder peroral eingenommen werden. Nicotin Tabak , Cytisin Goldregen. Cocain wird häufig mit anderen Rauschmitteln kombiniert, beispielsweise mit Alkohol oder Heroin. Bei längerem Konsum werden negative Verhaltensänderungen beobachtet. Dazu können auch Medikamente verwendet werden. November der Medico-Legal Society von einer Frau, die Kokain gegen Zahnschmerzen eingesetzt habe und daran verstorben sei. Wenn nicht anders vermerkt, gelten die angegebenen Https://gutterfunk.co/online-casino-list-top-10-online-casinos/beste-spielothek-in-atzbsll-finden.php bei Standardbedingungen. Dementsprechend gibt es relativ viele, die Kokain gelegentlich konsumieren. Dies geht aus zwei aktuellen Studien der Universität Zürich hervor. Kokain und das Ego - Soziale Kognition bei Kokainkonsumenten: Abhängige wie nicht-abhängige Kokainkonsumenten sind weniger empathisch, sie verhalten sich in Interaktionen mit anderen weniger sozial und haben ein kleineres soziales Netzwerk please click for source vergleichbare Personen ohne Drogenkonsum. Ein grosses Angebot an englischsprachigen Informationen zu Kokain. Man unterscheidet die Herkunftspflanzen wie folgt:. Kokain macht einsam: Immer mehr Schweizer konsumieren Kokain, sei es als Partydroge oder als Aufputschmittel im Beruf. Es wurde click to see more hauptsächlich als Lokalanästhetikum verwendet. Die Alkaloide werden mit Lösungsmitteln extrahiert und der Auszug verseift Esterspaltung. Auch hochsensitive Immunoassays stehen für die Analytik zur Verfügung. Bei stärkeren Halluzinationen kann als Gegenmittel Physostigmin gegeben werden. For god, country, and Coca-Cola: the definitive history of the great american soft drink and the company that makes it. Dabei sprechen einige Studien dafür, dass Cocaethylen insbesondere für das Herz schädlicher ist als beide Substanzen Alkohol und Kokain für sich. Einer der Hauptgründe für Uno Spielregel Lidocainverschnitt liegt in der lokalanästhetischen Wirkung dieses Stoffes, durch den beispielsweise beim Zungentest Kokain leicht Randomat werden kann. Dies kann Herzrhythmusstörungen bis hin zum Herzanfall zur Folge haben. Bei höherer Dosierung können Symptome wie Nervosität, Angstzustände und paranoide Stimmungen auftreten. Auch sonst war Kokaingebrauch im letzten Drittel des

Rein kokainabhängige Menschen bilden im Vergleich zu Opioidabhängigen eine Zielgruppe mit anderen Bedürfnissen. Sie sind in der Regel in deutlich anderen sozioökonomischen Situationen sozial integriert und finanziell gesicherter als Opioidabhängige.

Die Behandlung muss stationär geschehen. Grund dafür ist, dass das Risiko sonst zu hoch ist, dass die Betroffen rückfällig werden.

Zudem wird meist ein Gespräch mit den Betroffenen geführt, damit sich die Ärzte ein Bild des Patienten machen können. Nach dem Entzug ist eine weitere Medizinische Behandlung zwingend notwendig, um einen Rückfall zu vermeiden.

Dazu können auch Medikamente verwendet werden. Das statistische Risiko für Kokainkonsumenten, an einer Überdosis Kokain zu sterben, beträgt ein Zwanzigstel gegenüber Heroinkonsumenten, an einer Überdosis Heroin zu sterben.

In Deutschland wurden im Jahr insgesamt 27 Todesfälle gezählt, die direkt mit dem alleinigen Konsum von Kokain in Verbindung standen.

In 90 weiteren Todesfällen war Kokain neben anderen Drogen auch involviert. Von besonderer Bedeutung ist hier einerseits die Mischintoxikation mit Heroin und Kokain und andererseits die von Lidocain respektive Tetracain und Kokain.

Besonders die Verunreinigung von Kokain mit Lidocain stellt ein lebensbedrohliches Problem dar, wie eine Studie aus dem Jahr dreier rechtsmedizinischer Institute in Berlin zur toxikologischen Bewertung der Lokalanästhetika Lidocain und Tetracain bei Drogentodesfällen feststellt.

Hierdurch erhöht sich die Gewinnspanne der am Handel beteiligten Akteure. Sowohl das Landeskriminalamt Berlin als auch das Bundesministerium für Gesundheit warnen daher die Apotheker eindringlich vor einer unkritischen Abgabe von Lidocain.

Einer der Hauptgründe für den Lidocainverschnitt liegt in der lokalanästhetischen Wirkung dieses Stoffes, durch den beispielsweise beim Zungentest Kokain leicht vorgetäuscht werden kann.

Besonders problematisch ist Lidocain- oder Tetracainverschnitt, wenn Kokain weder geschnupft noch geraucht, sondern intravenös injiziert wird.

Letztendlich führte die Lähmung des zentralen Nervensystems oder die Blockade des Erregungsbildungssystems des Herzens zum Tode. Siehe auch Abschnitt Gefahren durch Streckmittel.

Personen mit unentdeckten, an sich harmlosen Herzfehlern können bereits nach einmaligem Kokainkonsum sterben. Beim gemeinsamen Gebrauch von Schnupfröhrchen kann es bei der nasalen Applikation von Kokain zur Übertragung von Krankheitserregern kommen.

Dies gilt insbesondere für Dauerkonsumenten, da diese häufiger Verletzungen an den Nasenschleimhäuten haben als Gelegenheitskonsumenten.

Das gemeinsame Benutzen von scharfkantigen Schnupfröhrchen z. Deshalb sollten die Regeln des Safer Sniffing beim Schnupfvorgang eingehalten werden.

Kokain vermindert die subjektiv wahrgenommene Wirkung von anderen Drogen wie Alkohol. Ein Kokainkonsument läuft somit leichter Gefahr, eine Alkoholvergiftung zu bekommen als jemand, der Alkohol ohne Beikonsum anderer Drogen trinkt.

Cocaethylen ist der Ethylester von Benzoylecgonin während Kokain der entsprechende Methylester ist und hemmt die Wiederaufnahme von Dopamin in gleicher Weise wie Kokain bei längerer Wirkdauer.

Es kommt zu einer deutlichen Verstärkung der Wirkung des Kokains auf die vitalen Funktionen, zu einer Steigerung des Aktivitätsdrangs und zu einer Minderung des Alkoholrausches.

Dabei sprechen einige Studien dafür, dass Cocaethylen insbesondere für das Herz schädlicher ist als beide Substanzen Alkohol und Kokain für sich.

Wird nach dem Konsum von Cannabis Kokain geschnupft, wird ein höherer Blutspiegel von Kokain erzielt als nach dem Schnupfen von Kokain in nüchternem Zustand.

Dies führt zu länger anhaltenden Phasen euphorischer Gefühlsempfindungen, die zudem etwas intensiver wahrgenommen werden als nach dem Monokonsum von Kokain.

Zu beachten ist jedoch, dass der Mischkonsum von Cannabis und Kokain auch zu einer stärkeren Erhöhung der Herzfrequenz und des Blutdrucks führt als der Monokonsum dieser Substanzen.

Besonders in Situationen von Anspannung und Stress tritt dieser additive Effekt verstärkt auf. Für Personen mit vorgeschädigtem Herz-Kreislauf-System ergeben sich aus dem Mischkonsum zusätzliche Gefahren, die über die Summe der Einzelgefahren hinausgehen.

In Tierversuchen kann relativ einfach festgestellt werden, ob der Konsum einer Substanz die spätere Attraktivität einer anderen Substanz für Tiere erhöht.

Bei Menschen, wo derartige direkte Experimente nicht möglich sind, kann jedoch in Längsschnittstudien untersucht werden, ob die Wahrscheinlichkeit des Gebrauchs einer Substanz mit dem früheren Gebrauch von anderen Substanzen in Beziehung steht.

Das Problem illegaler Drogen ist generell, dass sie meist nur gestreckt auf dem Schwarzmarkt angeboten werden.

Näheres hierzu ist im einleitenden Abschnitt nachzulesen. Daher besteht die Gefahr, dass ein unbekanntes Streckmittel enthalten ist, welches unter Umständen gesundheitsschädlich oder sogar tödlich sein kann.

Auch allergische Reaktionen bis hin zum Allergieschock gegen die Beimischungen sind bekannt. Insbesondere mit Lidocain oder Tetracain versetztes Kokain ist problematisch, wenn das Gemisch intravenös injiziert wird.

Es kann zur Lähmung des zentralen Nervensystems und zur Blockade des Herz-Erregungsleitungssystems führen und deshalb tödlich sein.

Allein in Berlin waren in den Jahren bis insgesamt 46 Todesfälle im Zusammenhang mit Lidocain und 13 weitere Todesfälle durch Tetracain zu beklagen.

In Europa traten gegen Ende des Jahres bislang einzigartige, lebensgefährliche Verunreinigungen mit Atropin auf. In den letzten Jahren wurde vermehrt Levamisol als Streckmittel beigemengt.

Das normalerweise als Entwurmungsmittel angewandte Medikament wird bereits in den Produktionsländern beigemengt, da es den dortigen Farmen zur Verfügung steht, optisch Kokain gleicht und dessen Wirkung leicht verlängern soll.

Kokainkonsumenten sollten auf HLA-B27 getestet werden. Des Weiteren kann es zu einer versehentlichen Überdosierung mit schweren gesundheitlichen oder tödlichen Folgen kommen, wenn das Kokain einen höheren Reinheitsgrad und damit einen höheren Kokaingehalt hat als vom Konsumenten erwartet oder gewohnt.

Kokainsulfat ist eigentlich ein Zwischenprodukt bei der Herstellung von Kokainhydrochlorid. Mit Calciumoxid weiterbehandelt wird es als Oxi bezeichnet.

In Südamerika wird Kokainsulfat allerdings auch häufig vermischt mit Tabak geraucht, da es im Vergleich zu den anderen Kokainformen sehr viel billiger ist.

Kokainbase ist die Basenform von Kokain im Gegensatz zu Kokainhydrochlorid. Während letzteres sehr gut wasserlöslich ist, ist Kokainbase unlöslich in Wasser und somit nicht zum Schnupfen, Essen oder zur Injektion geeignet.

Kokainbase ist einerseits ebenfalls ein Zwischenprodukt bei der Herstellung von Kokainhydrochlorid, andererseits ist es auch üblich, auf dem Schwarzmarkt erworbenes Kokainhydrochlorid durch Erhitzen in Ammoniakwasser wieder zur Base umzuwandeln, da Kokain in Basenform sehr viel effektiver geraucht werden kann als Kokainhydrochlorid.

Das Hydrochlorid ist gut wasserlöslich und daher zum Schnupfen, Essen oder zur Injektion geeignet. Deshalb wird für diesen Zweck meist Kokainbase oder Crack hergestellt.

Crack macht deutlich schneller süchtig als herkömmliches Kokain und ist damit die Droge mit dem höchsten psychischen Abhängigkeitspotenzial.

Während die o. Dabei wird Kokain mit Kobalt- und Eisenchlorid vermischt. This article needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources.

Please review the contents of the article and add the appropriate references if you can. Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged and removed.

See also: Crack cocaine. Main article: Cocaine intoxication. See also: Epigenetics of cocaine addiction. Main article: Freebase chemistry.

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Crack cocaine. Main article: Biosynthesis of cocaine. Main article: List of countries by prevalence of cocaine use.

Main article: Cocaine in the United States. Main article: Legal status of cocaine. See also: Cocaine in the United States. Medicine portal.

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Illegal drugs: America's anguish ed. Farmington Hills, Michigan: Thomson Gale. Drug Enforcement Administration. Using sophisticated technologies, scientists are now finding that exposure to cocaine during fetal development may lead to subtle, yet significant, later deficits in some children, including deficits in some aspects of cognitive performance, information-processing, and attention to tasks—abilities that are important for success in school.

There are also warnings about the threat of breastfeeding : The March of Dimes said "it is likely that cocaine will reach the baby through breast milk," and advises the following regarding cocaine use during pregnancy:.

Cocaine use during pregnancy can affect a pregnant woman and her unborn baby in many ways. During the early months of pregnancy, it may increase the risk of miscarriage.

Later in pregnancy, it can trigger preterm labor labor that occurs before 37 weeks of pregnancy or cause the baby to grow poorly. As a result, cocaine-exposed babies are more likely than unexposed babies to be born with low birthweight less than 5.

Low-birthweight babies are 20 times more likely to die in their first month of life than normal-weight babies, and face an increased risk of lifelong disabilities such as mental retardation and cerebral palsy.

Cocaine-exposed babies also tend to have smaller heads, which generally reflect smaller brains. Some studies suggest that cocaine-exposed babies are at increased risk of birth defects, including urinary-tract defects and, possibly, heart defects.

Cocaine also may cause an unborn baby to have a stroke, irreversible brain damage, or a heart attack. An appreciable tolerance to cocaine's high may develop, with many addicts reporting that they seek but fail to achieve as much pleasure as they did from their first experience.

While tolerance to the high can occur, users might also become more sensitive drug sensitization to cocaine's local anesthetic pain killing and convulsant seizure inducing effects, without increasing the dose taken; this increased sensitivity may explain some deaths occurring after apparent low doses of cocaine.

Crack cocaine is popularly thought to be the most addictive form of cocaine. The claim that cocaine is much more addictive when smoked must be reexamined.

The intense desire to recapture the initial high is what is so addictive for many users. A typical response among users is to have another hit of the drug; however, the levels of dopamine in the brain take a long time to replenish themselves, and each hit taken in rapid succession leads to progressively less intense highs.

Use of cocaine in a binge, during which the drug is taken repeatedly and at increasingly high doses, leads to a state of increasing irritability, restlessness, and paranoia.

Large amounts of crack cocaine several hundred milligrams or more intensify the user's high, but may also lead to bizarre, erratic, and violent behavior.

Synonyms used to refer to crack cocaine include atari ; base ; bazooka ; beamers ; beemers ; bebe ; bee-bee ; berry ; bing ; bolo ; bomb ; boulder ; boulders ; butter ; caine ; cane ; Casper ; Casper the ghost ; cavvy ; chemical ; chewies ; cloud ; cloud nine ; crills ; crunch and munch ; dip ; famous dimes ; fan ; fish scale ; fries ; fry ; glo ; golfball ; gravel ; grit ; hail ; hamburger ; helper ; hubba ; ice cube ; kangaroo ; kibbles and bits ; kibbles ; krills ; lightem ; paste ; patico ; pebbles ; pee wee ; pony ; raw ; ready ; ready rocks ; redi rocks ; roca ; rock ; rooster ; rox ; Roxanne ; scud ; Scotty ; scramble ; scruples ; seven-up ; sherm ; sherms ; sleet ; snowballs ; stones ; teeth ; tension ; top gun ; tweak ; ultimate ; wash ; white cloud ; work ; yahoo ; yale ; yay ; yayoo ; yeah-O ; yeyo ; yeo ; and yuck.

Crack cocaine may be combined with amphetamine "croack" ; tobacco "coolie" ; marijuana "buddha"; "caviar"; "chronic"; "cocoa puffs"; "fry daddy"; "gimmie"; "gremmie"; "juice"; "primo"; "torpedo"; "turbo"; "woolie"; "woola" ; heroin "moon rock" ; and phencyclidine "clicker"; "p-funk"; "spacebase".

Crack smoking "hitting the pipe"; "puffing"; "beaming up to Scotty " is commonly performed with utensils such as pipes "bowl"; "devil's dick"; "glass dick"; "horn"; "Uzi" ; improvised pipes made from a plastic bottle "Masarati" ; water pipes "bong"; "hubbly-bubbly" ; and laboratory pipettes "demo".

Cocaine is listed as a Schedule I drug in the United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs , making it illegal for non-state-sanctioned production, manufacture, export, import, distribution, trade, use and possession.

In Australia, crack falls under the same category as cocaine, which is listed as a Schedule 8 controlled drug , indicating that any substances and preparations for therapeutic use under this category have high potential for abuse and addiction.

It is permitted for some medical use, but is otherwise outlawed. As a Schedule I substance under the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act , crack is not differentiated from cocaine and other coca products.

However, the court may weigh the socio-economic factors of crack usage in sentencing. As a guideline, Schedule I drugs carry a maximum 7-year prison sentence for possession for an indictable offense and up to life imprisonment for trafficking and production.

In the United States, cocaine is a Schedule II drug under the Controlled Substances Act , indicating that it has a high abuse potential but also carries a medicinal purpose.

The Anti-Drug Abuse Act of increased penalties for crack cocaine possession and usage. It mandated a mandatory minimum sentence of five years without parole for possession of five grams of crack; to receive the same sentence with powder cocaine one had to have grams.

In the Netherlands it is a List 1 drug of the Opium Law. Rob Ford , the 64th mayor of Toronto , was filmed smoking crack while he was in office.

Marion Barry , Mayor of Washington D. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Form of the drug cocaine. Main article: Prenatal cocaine exposure.

Main article: Substance dependence. Manual of Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment.

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Eric Clapton - Layla Substance abuse: a comprehensive textbook 4th Partner Beim. Der Einsatz von Kokain für Eingriffe am Kopf ist nach der deutschen Betäubungsmittel-Verschreibungsverordnung weiterhin zulässig. American-Medicine Publishing Company: When the Spanish arrived in South Americamost at first ignored aboriginal claims that the leaf gave them strength and energy, and declared the practice of chewing it the here of the Devil. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. TRPs See here instead. In aktuellen Untersuchungen wird versucht, den Konsum von Kokain durch die Bestimmung in kommunalen Abwässern einzuschätzen. Artikel auf tagesanzeiger. Dosierung Cocain kann als Rauschmittel Luca Brecel, gespritzt oder peroral eingenommen werden. Insbesondere die Empathiedefizite könnten hierbei substanzinduziert sein, wie Längsschnittdaten aus einer Untersuchung der Psychiatrischen Universitätsklinik Zürich nahelegen. Kokain kann in Ammoniak gelöst und auf einer Alufolie verdampft werden, wodurch die Kokainbase frei wird und inhaliert werden kann Freebase. Der what Beste Spielothek in Elsoft finden amusing Report kann kostenlos Wiki Kokain der WOZ bestellt werden. Studie Französisch, pdf, S. Einer der Hauptgründe für den Lidocainverschnitt liegt in der lokalanästhetischen Wirkung dieses Stoffes, durch den beispielsweise beim Zungentest Kokain leicht vorgetäuscht werden kann. Dermatozoenwahn ist ein charakteristisches Symptom, hierbei glaubt der Betroffene, Insekten krabbelten unter seiner Haut.

The juices are absorbed slowly by the mucous membrane of the inner cheek and by the gastrointestinal tract when swallowed. Alternatively, coca leaves can be infused in liquid and consumed like tea.

Ingesting coca leaves generally is an inefficient means of administering cocaine. Because cocaine is hydrolyzed and rendered inactive in the acidic stomach, it is not readily absorbed when ingested alone.

Only when mixed with a highly alkaline substance such as lime can it be absorbed into the bloodstream through the stomach. The efficiency of absorption of orally administered cocaine is limited by two additional factors.

First, the drug is partly catabolized by the liver. Second, capillaries in the mouth and esophagus constrict after contact with the drug, reducing the surface area over which the drug can be absorbed.

Nevertheless, cocaine metabolites can be detected in the urine of subjects that have sipped even one cup of coca leaf infusion.

Compared to ingestion, the faster absorption of insufflated cocaine results in quicker attainment of maximum drug effects.

Coca tea , an infusion of coca leaves, is also a traditional method of consumption. The tea has often been recommended for travelers in the Andes to prevent altitude sickness.

The article stated that drinking two cups of the tea per day gave a mild stimulation , increased heart rate , and mood elevation, and the tea was essentially harmless.

Despite this, the DEA seized several shipments in Hawaii , Chicago , Georgia , and several locations on the East Coast of the United States , and the product was removed from the shelves.

Nasal insufflation known colloquially as "snorting", "sniffing", or "blowing" is a common method of ingestion of recreational powdered cocaine.

Cocaine's desired euphoric effects are delayed when snorted through the nose by about five minutes. This occurs because cocaine's absorption is slowed by its constricting effect on the blood vessels of the nose.

In a study of cocaine users, the average time taken to reach peak subjective effects was Nosebleeds after cocaine insufflation are due to irritation and damage of mucus membranes by foreign particles and adulterants and not the cocaine itself; [ citation needed ] as a vasoconstrictor, cocaine acts to reduce bleeding.

Rolled up banknotes , hollowed-out pens , cut straws , pointed ends of keys, specialized spoons, long fingernails , and clean tampon applicators are often used to insufflate cocaine.

Such devices are often called "tooters" by users. The cocaine typically is poured onto a flat, hard surface such as a mirror, CD case or book and divided into "bumps," "lines" or "rails," and then insufflated.

Drug injection by turning the drug into a solution provides the highest blood levels of drug in the shortest amount of time.

This is colloquially referred to as a "bell ringer". In a study of cocaine users, the average time taken to reach peak subjective effects was 3.

Aside from the toxic effects of cocaine, there is also danger of circulatory emboli from the insoluble substances that may be used to cut the drug.

As with all injected illicit substances , there is a risk of the user contracting blood-borne infections if sterile injecting equipment is not available or used.

Additionally, because cocaine is a vasoconstrictor, and usage often entails multiple injections within several hours or less, subsequent injections are progressively more difficult to administer, which in turn may lead to more injection attempts and more consequences from improperly performed injection.

An injected mixture of cocaine and heroin , known as " speedball " is a particularly dangerous combination, as the converse effects of the drugs actually complement each other, but may also mask the symptoms of an overdose.

Experimentally, cocaine injections can be delivered to animals such as fruit flies to study the mechanisms of cocaine addiction.

Inhalation by smoking cocaine is one of the several ways the drug is consumed. The onset of cocaine's desired euphoric effects is fastest with inhaling cocaine and begins after 3—5 seconds.

Cocaine is smoked by inhaling the vapor produced when solid cocaine is heated to the point that it sublimates.

Smoking freebase or crack cocaine is most often accomplished using a pipe made from a small glass tube, often taken from " love roses ", small glass tubes with a paper rose that are promoted as romantic gifts.

Crack smokers also sometimes smoke through a soda can with small holes on the side or bottom. Powdered cocaine is also sometimes smoked, though heat destroys much of the chemical; smokers often sprinkle it on cannabis.

Another way users consume cocaine is by making it into a suppository which they then insert into the anus or vagina. The drug is then absorbed by the membranes of these body parts.

Little research has been focused on the suppository anal or vaginal insertion method of administration, also known as "plugging".

This method of administration is commonly administered using an oral syringe. Cocaine can be dissolved in water and withdrawn into an oral syringe which may then be lubricated and inserted into the anus or vagina before the plunger is pushed.

Anecdotal evidence of its effects is infrequently discussed, possibly due to social taboos in many cultures.

The rectum and the vaginal canal is where the majority of the drug would be taken up through the membranes lining its walls.

With excessive or prolonged use, the drug can cause itching , fast heart rate , hallucinations , and paranoid delusions or sensations of insects crawling on the skin.

Anxiety, paranoia , and restlessness can also occur, especially during the comedown. With excessive dosage, tremors, convulsions and increased body temperature are observed.

Opioid involvement in cocaine overdose deaths. Green line is cocaine and any opioid top line in Gray line is cocaine without any opioids bottom line in Yellow line is cocaine and other synthetic opioids middle line in Delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational drugs based on expert opinion.

Cocaine was ranked the 2nd in dependence and physical harm and 3rd in social harm. Chronic cocaine intake causes strong imbalances of transmitter levels in order to compensate extremes.

However, studies suggest cocaine abusers do not show normal age-related loss of striatal dopamine transporter DAT sites, suggesting cocaine has neuroprotective properties for dopamine neurons.

Depression with suicidal ideation may develop in very heavy users. Finally, a loss of vesicular monoamine transporters , neurofilament proteins, and other morphological changes appear to indicate a long term damage of dopamine neurons.

All these effects contribute a rise in tolerance thus requiring a larger dosage to achieve the same effect. Physical withdrawal is not dangerous.

Physiological changes caused by cocaine withdrawal include vivid and unpleasant dreams, insomnia or hypersomnia, increased appetite and psychomotor retardation or agitation.

Physical side effects from chronic smoking of cocaine include coughing up blood , bronchospasm , itching , fever , diffuse alveolar infiltrates without effusions, pulmonary and systemic eosinophilia , chest pain, lung trauma, sore throat, asthma , hoarse voice, dyspnea shortness of breath , and an aching, flu -like syndrome.

Cocaine constricts blood vessels , dilates pupils , and increases body temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure. It can also cause headaches and gastrointestinal complications such as abdominal pain and nausea.

A common but untrue belief is that the smoking of cocaine chemically breaks down tooth enamel and causes tooth decay. However, cocaine does often cause involuntary tooth grinding, known as bruxism , which can deteriorate tooth enamel and lead to gingivitis.

Since saliva is an important mechanism in maintaining one's oral pH level, chronic stimulant abusers who do not hydrate sufficiently may experience demineralization of their teeth due to the pH of the tooth surface dropping too low below 5.

Cocaine use also promotes the formation of blood clots. Chronic intranasal usage can degrade the cartilage separating the nostrils the septum nasi , leading eventually to its complete disappearance.

Due to the absorption of the cocaine from cocaine hydrochloride, the remaining hydrochloride forms a dilute hydrochloric acid. Cocaine may also greatly increase the risk of developing rare autoimmune or connective tissue diseases such as lupus , Goodpasture syndrome , vasculitis , glomerulonephritis , Stevens—Johnson syndrome , and other diseases.

Cocaine use leads to an increased risk of hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes. This change can be identified rather quickly, and may be sustained weeks after the last dose of the drug.

Cocaine dependence is a form of psychological dependence that develops from regular cocaine use and produces a withdrawal state with emotional-motivational deficits upon cessation of cocaine use.

Cocaine is known to have a number of deleterious effects during pregnancy. Pregnant people who use cocaine have an elevated risk of placental abruption , a condition where the placenta detaches from the uterus and causes bleeding.

Cocaine is also teratogenic, meaning that it can cause birth defects and fetal malformations.

In-utero exposure to cocaine is associated with behavioral abnormalities, cognitive impairment, cardiovascular malformations, intrauterine growth restriction , preterm birth, urinary tract malformations, and cleft lip and palate.

Dopamine transmitter released during neural signaling is normally recycled via the transporter; i.

Cocaine binds tightly at the dopamine transporter forming a complex that blocks the transporter's function.

The dopamine transporter can no longer perform its reuptake function, and thus dopamine accumulates in the synaptic cleft.

The increased concentration of dopamine in the synapse activates post-synaptic dopamine receptors, which makes the drug rewarding and promotes the compulsive use of cocaine.

Cocaine affects certain serotonin 5-HT receptors; in particular, it has been shown to antagonize the 5-HT3 receptor , which is a ligand-gated ion channel.

The overabundance of 5-HT3 receptors in cocaine conditioned rats display this trait, however the exact effect of 5-HT3 in this process is unclear.

Cocaine has been demonstrated to bind as to directly stabilize the DAT transporter on the open outward-facing conformation.

Further, cocaine binds in such a way as to inhibit a hydrogen bond innate to DAT. Cocaine's binding properties are such that it attaches so this hydrogen bond will not form and is blocked from formation due to the tightly locked orientation of the cocaine molecule.

Research studies have suggested that the affinity for the transporter is not what is involved in habituation of the substance so much as the conformation and binding properties to where and how on the transporter the molecule binds.

Sigma receptors are affected by cocaine, as cocaine functions as a sigma ligand agonist. Cocaine also blocks sodium channels , thereby interfering with the propagation of action potentials ; [72] [45] thus, like lignocaine and novocaine , it acts as a local anesthetic.

It also functions on the binding sites to the dopamine and serotonin sodium dependent transport area as targets as separate mechanisms from its reuptake of those transporters; unique to its local anesthetic value which makes it in a class of functionality different from both its own derived phenyltropanes analogues which have that removed.

In addition to this cocaine has some target binding to the site of the Kappa-opioid receptor as well. The locomotor enhancing properties of cocaine may be attributable to its enhancement of dopaminergic transmission from the substantia nigra.

Cocaine can often cause reduced food intake, many chronic users lose their appetite and can experience severe malnutrition and significant weight loss.

Cocaine effects, further, are shown to be potentiated for the user when used in conjunction with new surroundings and stimuli, and otherwise novel environs.

Cocaine has a short half life of 0. Depending on liver and kidney function, cocaine metabolites are detectable in urine.

Detection of cocaine metabolites in hair is possible in regular users until the sections of hair grown during use are cut or fall out.

Cocaine in its purest form is a white, pearly product. Cocaine appearing in powder form is a salt , typically cocaine hydrochloride.

Street cocaine is often adulterated or "cut" with talc , lactose , sucrose , glucose , mannitol , inositol , caffeine , procaine , phencyclidine , phenytoin , lignocaine , strychnine , amphetamine , or heroin.

The color of "crack" cocaine depends upon several factors including the origin of the cocaine used, the method of preparation — with ammonia or baking soda — and the presence of impurities.

It will generally range from white to a yellowish cream to a light brown. Its texture will also depend on the adulterants, origin and processing of the powdered cocaine, and the method of converting the base.

It ranges from a crumbly texture, sometimes extremely oily, to a hard, almost crystalline nature. Cocaine — a tropane alkaloid — is a weakly alkaline compound, and can therefore combine with acidic compounds to form salts.

Different salts dissolve to a greater or lesser extent in various solvents — the hydrochloride salt is polar in character and is quite soluble in water.

As the name implies, "freebase" is the base form of cocaine, as opposed to the salt form. It is practically insoluble in water whereas hydrochloride salt is water-soluble.

Smoking freebase cocaine has the additional effect of releasing methylecgonidine into the user's system due to the pyrolysis of the substance a side effect which insufflating or injecting powder cocaine does not create.

Some research suggests that smoking freebase cocaine can be even more cardiotoxic than other routes of administration [81] because of methylecgonidine's effects on lung tissue [82] and liver tissue.

Pure cocaine is prepared by neutralizing its compounding salt with an alkaline solution, which will precipitate to non-polar basic cocaine.

It is further refined through aqueous-solvent liquid—liquid extraction. Smoking or vaporizing cocaine and inhaling it into the lungs produces an almost immediate "high" that can be very powerful and addicting quite rapidly — this initial crescendo of stimulation is known as a "rush".

While the stimulating effects may last for hours, the euphoric sensation is very brief, prompting the user to smoke more immediately.

This effectively destroys some of the cocaine and yields a sharp, acrid, and foul-tasting smoke. The origin of the name "crack" comes from the "crackling" sound and hence the onomatopoeic moniker "crack" that is produced when the cocaine and its impurities i.

Coca herbal infusion also referred to as coca tea is used in coca-leaf producing countries much as any herbal medicinal infusion would elsewhere in the world.

The free and legal commercialization of dried coca leaves under the form of filtration bags to be used as "coca tea" has been actively promoted by the governments of Peru and Bolivia for many years as a drink having medicinal powers.

In Peru, the National Coca Company , a state-run corporation, sells cocaine-infused teas and other medicinal products and also exports leaves to the U.

Visitors to the city of Cuzco in Peru, and La Paz in Bolivia are greeted with the offering of coca leaf infusions prepared in teapots with whole coca leaves purportedly to help the newly arrived traveler overcome the malaise of high altitude sickness.

The effects of drinking coca tea are a mild stimulation and mood lift. In order to prevent the demonization of this product, its promoters publicize the unproven concept that much of the effect of the ingestion of coca leaf infusion would come from the secondary alkaloids, as being not only quantitatively different from pure cocaine but also qualitatively different.

It has been promoted as an adjuvant for the treatment of cocaine dependence. In one controversial study, coca leaf infusion was used—in addition to counseling—to treat 23 addicted coca-paste smokers in Lima , Peru.

Relapses fell from an average of four times per month before treatment with coca tea to one during the treatment.

These results suggest that the administration of coca leaf infusion plus counseling would be an effective method for preventing relapse during treatment for cocaine addiction.

Importantly, these results also suggest strongly that the primary pharmacologically active metabolite in coca leaf infusions is actually cocaine and not the secondary alkaloids.

The first synthesis and elucidation of the cocaine molecule was by Richard Willstätter in Since then, Robert Robinson and Edward Leete have made significant contributions to the mechanism of the synthesis.

The second addition occurs through a Claisen condensation. This produces a racemic mixture of the 2-substituted pyrrolidine, with the retention of the thioester from the Claisen condensation.

In formation of tropinone from racemic ethyl [2,C 2 ] 4 Nmethylpyrrolidinyl oxobutanoate there is no preference for either stereoisomer.

The stereoselectivity of this reaction was further investigated through study of prochiral methylene hydrogen discrimination.

The benzoyl moiety required for the formation of the cocaine diester is synthesized from phenylalanine via cinnamic acid.

The biosynthesis begins with L- Glutamine , which is derived to L- ornithine in plants. The major contribution of L-ornithine and L- arginine as a precursor to the tropane ring was confirmed by Edward Leete.

In animals, however, the urea cycle derives putrescine from ornithine. L-ornithine is converted to L-arginine, [96] which is then decarboxylated via PLP to form agmatine.

Hydrolysis of the imine derives N -carbamoylputrescine followed with hydrolysis of the urea to form putrescine.

The separate pathways of converting ornithine to putrescine in plants and animals have converged. A SAM-dependent N -methylation of putrescine gives the N -methylputrescine product, which then undergoes oxidative deamination by the action of diamine oxidase to yield the aminoaldehyde.

The biosynthesis of the tropane alkaloid , however, is still uncertain. Hemscheidt proposes that Robinson's acetonedicarboxylate emerges as a potential intermediate for this reaction.

Decarboxylation leads to tropane alkaloid formation. The reduction of tropinone is mediated by NADPH -dependent reductase enzymes, which have been characterized in multiple plant species.

Cocaine and its major metabolites may be quantified in blood, plasma, or urine to monitor for abuse, confirm a diagnosis of poisoning, or assist in the forensic investigation of a traffic or other criminal violation or a sudden death.

Most commercial cocaine immunoassay screening tests cross-react appreciably with the major cocaine metabolites, but chromatographic techniques can easily distinguish and separately measure each of these substances.

When interpreting the results of a test, it is important to consider the cocaine usage history of the individual, since a chronic user can develop tolerance to doses that would incapacitate a cocaine-naive individual, and the chronic user often has high baseline values of the metabolites in his system.

Cautious interpretation of testing results may allow a distinction between passive or active usage, and between smoking versus other routes of administration.

Similar claims have been made in web forums on that topic. Cocaine may be detected by law enforcement using the Scott reagent.

The test can easily generate false positives for common substances and must be confirmed with a laboratory test. The shade of brown shown by the chloroform is proportional to the cocaine content.

This test is not cross sensitive to heroin, methamphetamine, benzocaine, procaine and a number of other drugs but other chemicals could cause false positives.

According to a United Nations report, England and Wales are the countries with the highest rate of cocaine usage 2.

Cocaine is the second most popular illegal recreational drug in Europe behind cannabis. Since the mids, overall cocaine usage in Europe has been on the rise, but usage rates and attitudes tend to vary between countries.

Approximately 17 million Europeans 5. About 1. The ratio of male to female users is approximately 3. In London had the highest amount of cocaine in its sewage out of 50 European cities.

Cocaine is the second most popular illegal recreational drug in the United States behind cannabis [] and the U.

It is also popular amongst college students, as a party drug. A study throughout the entire United States has reported that around 48 percent of people who graduated from high school in have used cocaine recreationally during some point in their lifetime, compared to approximately 20 percent of students who graduated between the years of and In the s and s, the drug became particularly popular in the disco culture as cocaine usage was very common and popular in many discos such as Studio For over a thousand years South American indigenous peoples have chewed the leaves of Erythroxylon coca , a plant that contains vital nutrients as well as numerous alkaloids , including cocaine.

The coca leaf was, and still is, chewed almost universally by some indigenous communities. The remains of coca leaves have been found with ancient Peruvian mummies, and pottery from the time period depicts humans with bulged cheeks, indicating the presence of something on which they are chewing.

When the Spanish arrived in South America , most at first ignored aboriginal claims that the leaf gave them strength and energy, and declared the practice of chewing it the work of the Devil.

When they wished to make themselves drunk and out of judgment they chewed a mixture of tobacco and coca leaves which make them go as they were out of their wittes.

In , Padre Blas Valera wrote:. Coca protects the body from many ailments, and our doctors use it in powdered form to reduce the swelling of wounds, to strengthen broken bones, to expel cold from the body or prevent it from entering, and to cure rotten wounds or sores that are full of maggots.

And if it does so much for outward ailments, will not its singular virtue have even greater effect in the entrails of those who eat it?

Although the stimulant and hunger-suppressant properties of coca had been known for many centuries, the isolation of the cocaine alkaloid was not achieved until Various European scientists had attempted to isolate cocaine, but none had been successful for two reasons: the knowledge of chemistry required was insufficient at the time, [ citation needed ] and contemporary conditions of sea-shipping from South America could degrade the cocaine in the plant samples available to European chemists.

The cocaine alkaloid was first isolated by the German chemist Friedrich Gaedcke in Gaedcke named the alkaloid "erythroxyline", and published a description in the journal Archiv der Pharmazie.

In , Friedrich Wöhler asked Dr. Carl Scherzer , a scientist aboard the Novara an Austrian frigate sent by Emperor Franz Joseph to circle the globe , to bring him a large amount of coca leaves from South America.

In , the ship finished its travels and Wöhler received a trunk full of coca. Wöhler passed on the leaves to Albert Niemann , a PhD student at the University of Göttingen in Germany, who then developed an improved purification process.

Niemann described every step he took to isolate cocaine in his dissertation titled Über eine neue organische Base in den Cocablättern On a New Organic Base in the Coca Leaves , which was published in —it earned him his PhD and is now in the British Library.

He wrote of the alkaloid's "colourless transparent prisms" and said that "Its solutions have an alkaline reaction, a bitter taste, promote the flow of saliva and leave a peculiar numbness, followed by a sense of cold when applied to the tongue.

The first synthesis and elucidation of the structure of the cocaine molecule was by Richard Willstätter in With the discovery of this new alkaloid, Western medicine was quick to exploit the possible uses of this plant.

In , Vassili von Anrep, of the University of Würzburg , devised an experiment to demonstrate the analgesic properties of the newly discovered alkaloid.

He prepared two separate jars, one containing a cocaine-salt solution, with the other containing merely salt water.

He then submerged a frog's legs into the two jars, one leg in the treatment and one in the control solution, and proceeded to stimulate the legs in several different ways.

Kokain är i Europa den mest använda centralstimulerade drogen oftast som rekreationsdrog av socialt relativt välintegrerade brukare. Prisskillnaden mellan Sydamerika och de nordiska länderna är drivkraften bakom smuggelverksamheten till Norden.

Källa Polismyndigheten och Tullverket i Sverige [ 1 ]. Kokain är vanligt förekommande i Sverige och är mest vanlig i större städer. Smuggling sker främst genom vägtransporter och paketförsändelser.

Metabolismen domineras av ester hydrolys som till största delen ger metaboliten bensoylekgonin , samt mindre mängder av främst ekgoninmetylester och ekgonin.

I kombination med etanol alkohol metaboliseras kokain i levern till kokaetylen som enligt studier kan ge en ännu större euforisk känsla än bara kokain och öka risken för hjärtproblem.

Vid drogtestning mäts mängden bensoylekgonin i urinen. As a result, cocaine-exposed babies are more likely than unexposed babies to be born with low birthweight less than 5.

Low-birthweight babies are 20 times more likely to die in their first month of life than normal-weight babies, and face an increased risk of lifelong disabilities such as mental retardation and cerebral palsy.

Cocaine-exposed babies also tend to have smaller heads, which generally reflect smaller brains. Some studies suggest that cocaine-exposed babies are at increased risk of birth defects, including urinary-tract defects and, possibly, heart defects.

Cocaine also may cause an unborn baby to have a stroke, irreversible brain damage, or a heart attack. An appreciable tolerance to cocaine's high may develop, with many addicts reporting that they seek but fail to achieve as much pleasure as they did from their first experience.

While tolerance to the high can occur, users might also become more sensitive drug sensitization to cocaine's local anesthetic pain killing and convulsant seizure inducing effects, without increasing the dose taken; this increased sensitivity may explain some deaths occurring after apparent low doses of cocaine.

Crack cocaine is popularly thought to be the most addictive form of cocaine. The claim that cocaine is much more addictive when smoked must be reexamined.

The intense desire to recapture the initial high is what is so addictive for many users. A typical response among users is to have another hit of the drug; however, the levels of dopamine in the brain take a long time to replenish themselves, and each hit taken in rapid succession leads to progressively less intense highs.

Use of cocaine in a binge, during which the drug is taken repeatedly and at increasingly high doses, leads to a state of increasing irritability, restlessness, and paranoia.

Large amounts of crack cocaine several hundred milligrams or more intensify the user's high, but may also lead to bizarre, erratic, and violent behavior.

Synonyms used to refer to crack cocaine include atari ; base ; bazooka ; beamers ; beemers ; bebe ; bee-bee ; berry ; bing ; bolo ; bomb ; boulder ; boulders ; butter ; caine ; cane ; Casper ; Casper the ghost ; cavvy ; chemical ; chewies ; cloud ; cloud nine ; crills ; crunch and munch ; dip ; famous dimes ; fan ; fish scale ; fries ; fry ; glo ; golfball ; gravel ; grit ; hail ; hamburger ; helper ; hubba ; ice cube ; kangaroo ; kibbles and bits ; kibbles ; krills ; lightem ; paste ; patico ; pebbles ; pee wee ; pony ; raw ; ready ; ready rocks ; redi rocks ; roca ; rock ; rooster ; rox ; Roxanne ; scud ; Scotty ; scramble ; scruples ; seven-up ; sherm ; sherms ; sleet ; snowballs ; stones ; teeth ; tension ; top gun ; tweak ; ultimate ; wash ; white cloud ; work ; yahoo ; yale ; yay ; yayoo ; yeah-O ; yeyo ; yeo ; and yuck.

Crack cocaine may be combined with amphetamine "croack" ; tobacco "coolie" ; marijuana "buddha"; "caviar"; "chronic"; "cocoa puffs"; "fry daddy"; "gimmie"; "gremmie"; "juice"; "primo"; "torpedo"; "turbo"; "woolie"; "woola" ; heroin "moon rock" ; and phencyclidine "clicker"; "p-funk"; "spacebase".

Crack smoking "hitting the pipe"; "puffing"; "beaming up to Scotty " is commonly performed with utensils such as pipes "bowl"; "devil's dick"; "glass dick"; "horn"; "Uzi" ; improvised pipes made from a plastic bottle "Masarati" ; water pipes "bong"; "hubbly-bubbly" ; and laboratory pipettes "demo".

Cocaine is listed as a Schedule I drug in the United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs , making it illegal for non-state-sanctioned production, manufacture, export, import, distribution, trade, use and possession.

In Australia, crack falls under the same category as cocaine, which is listed as a Schedule 8 controlled drug , indicating that any substances and preparations for therapeutic use under this category have high potential for abuse and addiction.

It is permitted for some medical use, but is otherwise outlawed. As a Schedule I substance under the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act , crack is not differentiated from cocaine and other coca products.

However, the court may weigh the socio-economic factors of crack usage in sentencing. As a guideline, Schedule I drugs carry a maximum 7-year prison sentence for possession for an indictable offense and up to life imprisonment for trafficking and production.

In the United States, cocaine is a Schedule II drug under the Controlled Substances Act , indicating that it has a high abuse potential but also carries a medicinal purpose.

The Anti-Drug Abuse Act of increased penalties for crack cocaine possession and usage. It mandated a mandatory minimum sentence of five years without parole for possession of five grams of crack; to receive the same sentence with powder cocaine one had to have grams.

In the Netherlands it is a List 1 drug of the Opium Law. Rob Ford , the 64th mayor of Toronto , was filmed smoking crack while he was in office.

Marion Barry , Mayor of Washington D. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Form of the drug cocaine. Main article: Prenatal cocaine exposure.

Main article: Substance dependence. Manual of Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment. Washington, D. Berkeley, California: University of California Press.

Costa Rica. Annals of Emergency Medicine. Retrieved August 18,

Wiki Kokain -

Hyoscyamin Atropin. The neurobiology of cocaine addiction. Daher besteht die Gefahr, dass ein unbekanntes Streckmittel enthalten ist, welches unter Umständen gesundheitsschädlich oder sogar tödlich sein kann. In der Schweiz sind derzeit keine Fertigarzneimittel mit Cocain mehr im Handel. Derzeit ist in der Schweiz kein Arzneimittel mit Cocain mehr im Handel, entsprechende Zubereitungen müssen in einer Apotheke hergestellt werden. Nach dem Kokainrausch kann eine Depression auftreten. Diese sind unter folgenden Links nachzulesen: gutterfunk.co, de.​gutterfunk.co, gutterfunk.co Stand: 1. Word im Clip Art. Es wurden Teilstücke von Wikipedia übernommen. gutterfunk.co, gutterfunk.co, Stand: 1. Januar​. W. () Psychoanalyse. gutterfunk.co München. N.N. Jean Nicot. http://de.​gutterfunk.co wiki/Jean_Nicot. N.N. Kokain. gutterfunk.co wiki/Kokain. synonym: Kokain, Cocainum, Cocaini hydrochloridum PhEur, Cocainhydrochlorid. Produkte. In der Schweiz sind derzeit keine Fertigarzneimittel mit Cocain. gutterfunk.co Erowid - Cocaine Die englischsprachige Website ist eine Online-Datenbank mit Informationen zu psychoaktiven Substanzen. With excessive or prolonged use, the drug can cause itchingfast heart ratehallucinations read article, and paranoid delusions or sensations of insects crawling on the skin. As of the end ofthe seizure operations of Colombian cocaine carried out in different Uno Spielregel have totaled Archived PDF from the original on 4 March SofortГјberweisung Online Archived from the original on 7 March Allein in Berlin waren in den Jahren bis insgesamt 46 Todesfälle im Zusammenhang mit Lidocain und 13 weitere Todesfälle durch Tetracain zu beklagen. Recreational drug use. Die Gefahr der Überdosierung ist wegen der schnellen Aufnahme des hochkonzentrierten und in der Regel reinen Stoffes besonders hoch.

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